What Is The Central Nervous System?
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain plays a central role in the control of most bodily functions, including awareness, movements, sensations, thoughts, speech, and memory. Some reflex movements can occur via spinal cord pathways without the participation of brain structures.
The central nervous system is also said to control most functions of the body and mind. The brain is the center of our thoughts, the interpreter of our external environment, and the origin of control over body movement.
What Are Stimulants Drugs?
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase the activity of the central nervous system and the body. In other words, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The most frequently prescribed stimulants in 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine. It has been estimated that the % of the people that had used amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, Crystal Meth, MDMA Pills, etc.) and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%.
Nervous system stimulants are drugs that are used in stimulating the brain, speeding up both mental and physical processes. They increase energy, improve attention and alertness, and elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate.
Also, stimulants drugs are a type of drug that increases the levels of certain chemicals in the brain and also raises blood pressure and increases heart rate and breathing rate.
This class of drugs is considered a central nervous system stimulants. They work by increasing the amounts of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
Experts are not still sure of how nervous system stimulants work, although it is suspected that they increase levels of one or more neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. They may also have other effects, depending on the actual drug.
For instance, phentermine indirectly increases leptin levels that are a substance that tells us we feel full. Below are some examples of Central nervous system stimulants:
- Amphetamines (including ecstasy or methylenedioxymethamphetamine)
NB: It should be noted that Cocaine is the strongest Central Nervous System Stimulant drug and is probably the most addictive agent know. 3 types of CNS stimulants are being abused in sports recently that is an amphetamine, cocaine, and caffeine.
Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurons and their associated receptors and nerve terminals.
Uses Of Central Nervous System stimulants?
Some vital uses of Central nervous system stimulants are:
Central nervous system stimulants are good drugs to reduce tiredness and increase alertness, competitiveness, and aggression. Central nervous system stimulants are more likely to be used in competition and are used more during training to increase the intensity of the training session.
There are several potential dangers involving their misuse in contact sports. This paper reviews the three main CNS stimulants, ephedrine, amfetamine, and cocaine, in relation to misuse in sport.
Again, the Central nervous system stimulants may be useful for the treatment of certain conditions characterized by excessive sleepiness. Stimulants may also be used to help with weight loss in people who are morbidly obese. CNS stimulants have been used for the following conditions:
How To Take Stimulant Drugs.
Usually, stimulants sometimes called “Uppers“ works by acting on the central nervous system to increase alertness and cognitive function. Since prescription stimulants are medicines used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy, they come in tablets, capsules, and liquid forms, which a person takes by mouth.
When misusing a prescription stimulant, a person can swallow, snort, smoke, or inject the drug. And in case of any addiction to a stimulant drug, seek help from a doctor.
On the other hand, Depressants slow down activity in the central nervous system of your body. These drugs are also called “downers” because they slow the body down and seem to give feelings of relaxation.
What Are The Side Effects Of Stimulant Drugs?
Central nervous system stimulants have many unpleasant side effects and deaths have resulted from their misuse. They are widely abused and highly addictive. Apart from the fact that theCentral Nervous System Stimulants are energetic, they still perform the following effects:
- Depersonalization (a feeling that you are an observer of yourself)
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased rate of breathing
- Feelings of depression
- Increased anxiety
- Loss of appetite
- Panic attacks
In addition, the misuse of the Central nervous system stimulants can cause severe psychosis, severe depression, and suicidal thoughts. Even the short-term usage of stimulants can have adverse effects on your health.
Many users experience a loss of appetite, increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and body temperature, interrupted sleep patterns, hallucinations, and irritability.
Also, the nervous system stimulants cause dry mouth, unpleasant taste in the mouth and gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, diarrhea, or constipation) may also occur.
Moreso, doping with stimulant drugs is a real public health risk especially by most sporters. So all sports authorities should participate in its prevention.
Dissemination of information is essential to prevent doping in sport and to provide alternatives. Adequate training and education in this domain should be introduced.
Are Stimulants Addictive?
Central nervous system stimulants increase heart rate and brain function which ultimately increase focus and energy. Many are documented as Schedule II drugs because they are highly addictive and have the potential for severe physical as well as psychological dependence.
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